Genital herpes is an infection caused by the
herpes simplex virus or HSV. There are two types of HSV, and both can
cause genital herpes. HSV type 1 most commonly infects the lips causing
sores known as fever blisters or cold sores, but it also can infect the
genital area and produce sores there. HSV type 2 is the usual cause of
genital herpes, but it also can infect the mouth during oral sex. A person
who has genital herpes infection can easily pass or transmit the virus to
an uninfected person during sex.
Both HSV 1 and 2 can produce sores (also called lesions) in and around the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anal opening, and on the buttocks or thighs. Occasionally, sores also appear on other parts of the body where the virus has entered through broken skin.
HSV remains in certain nerve cells of the body for life, and can produce symptoms off and on in some infected people.
How does someone get genital herpes?
Most people get genital herpes by having
sex with someone who is having a herpes “outbreak.” This outbreak
means that HSV is active. When active, the virus usually causes visible
sores in the genital area. The sores cast off (shed) viruses that can
infect another person. Sometimes, however, a person can have an outbreak
and have no visible sores at all. People often get genital herpes by
having sexual contact with others who don’t know they are infected or
who are having outbreaks of herpes without any sores.
A person with genital herpes also can infect a sexual partner during oral sex. The virus is spread only rarely, if at all, by touching objects such as a toilet seat or hot tub.
What are the symptoms?
Unfortunately, most people who have genital
herpes don’t know it because they never have any symptoms, or they do
not recognize any symptoms they might have. When there are symptoms, they
can be different in each person. Most often, when a person becomes
infected with herpes for the first time, the symptoms will appear within
two to 10 days. These first episodes of symptoms usually last two to three
Early symptoms of a genital herpes outbreak include:
Within a few days, sores appear near where the virus has entered the body, such as on the mouth, penis, or vagina. They also can occur inside the vagina and on the cervix in women, or in the urinary passage of women and men. Small red bumps appear first, develop into blisters, and then become painful open sores. Over several days, the sores become crusty and then heal without leaving a scar. Some other symptoms that may go with the first episode of genital herpes are fever, headache, muscle aches, painful or difficult urination, vaginal discharge, and swollen glands in the groin area.
Will I ever have outbreaks again?
If you have been infected by HSV 1 and/or 2,
you will probably have symptoms or outbreaks from time to time. After the
virus has finished being active, it then travels to the nerves at the end
of the spine where it stays for a while. Even after the sores are gone,
the virus stays inside the nerve cells in a still and hidden state, which
means that it’s inactive.
In most people, the virus can become active several times a year. This is called a recurrence. But scientists do not yet know why this happens. When it becomes active again, it travels along the nerves to the skin, where it busies itself by making more viruses near the site of the very first infection. That is where new sores usually will appear.
Sometimes, the virus can become active but not cause any sores that can be seen. At these times, small amounts of the virus may be shed at or near places of the first infection, in fluids from the mouth, penis, or vagina, or from barely noticeable sores. You may not notice this shedding because it often does not cause any pain or feel uncomfortable. Even though you might not be aware of the shedding, you still can infect a sex partner during this time.
After the first outbreak, any future outbreaks are usually mild and last only about a week. An infected person may know that an outbreak is about to happen by feeling a tingling feeling or itching in the genital area, or pain in the buttocks or down the leg. For some people, these early symptoms can be the most painful and annoying part of an episode. Sometimes, only the tingling and itching are present and no visible sores develop. At other times, blisters appear that may be very small and barely noticeable, or they may break into open sores that crust over and then disappear.
The frequency and severity of the recurrent episodes vary greatly. While some people have only one or two outbreaks in a lifetime, others may have several outbreaks a year. The number and pattern of repeat outbreaks often change over time for a person. Scientists do not know what causes the virus to become active again. Although some people with herpes report that their outbreaks are brought on by another illness, stress, or having a menstrual period, outbreaks often are not predictable. In some cases, outbreaks may be connected to exposure to sunlight.
How does the doctor diagnose genital herpes?
Because the genital herpes sores may not be
visible to the naked eye, a doctor or other health care worker may have to
do several laboratory tests to try to prove that any other symptoms are
caused by the herpes virus. A person may still have genital herpes,
however, even if the laboratory tests don’t show the virus in the body.
A blood test cannot show whether a person can infect another person with the herpes virus. A blood test, however, can show if a person has been infected at any time with HSV. There are also newer blood tests that can tell whether a person has been infected with HSV 1 and/or 2.
What is the treatment?
Although there is no cure for genital herpes, your doctor might prescribe one of three medicines to treat it:
During an active herpes episode, whether the first episode or a repeat one, you should follow a few simple steps to speed healing and avoid spreading the infection to other places on the body or to other people:
Usually, genital herpes infections do not
cause major problems in healthy adults. In some people whose immune
systems do not work properly, genital herpes episodes can last a long time
and be unusually severe. (The body’s immune system fights off foreign
invaders such as viruses.)
If a woman has her first episode of genital herpes while she is pregnant, she can pass the virus to her unborn child and may deliver a premature baby. Half of the babies infected with herpes either die or suffer from damage to their nerves. A baby born with herpes can develop serious problems that may affect the brain, the skin, or the eyes. If babies born with herpes are treated immediately with acyclovir, their chances of being healthy are increased. Therefore, if you are pregnant and infected with genital herpes, you should stay in close touch with your doctor before, during, and after your baby is born.
If a pregnant woman has an outbreak and it is not the first one, her baby’s risk of being infected during delivery is very low.
If a woman is having an outbreak during labor and delivery and there are herpes lesions in or near the birth canal, the doctor will do a cesarean section to protect the baby. Most women with genital herpes, however, do not have signs of active infection with the virus during this time, and can have a normal delivery.
Genital herpes, like other genital diseases that produce sores, increases a person’s risk of getting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Also, prior to better treatments for AIDS, persons with HIV (because of lower protection from their immune systems) had severe herpes outbreaks, which may have helped them pass both genital herpes and HIV infections to others.
If you have early signs of a herpes outbreak or visible sores, you should not have sexual intercourse or oral sex until the signs are gone and/or the sores have healed completely. Between outbreaks, using condoms during sexual intercourse may offer some protection from the virus.
Genital herpes outbreaks can be distressing,
inconvenient, and sometimes painful. Concern about transmitting the
disease to others and disruption of sexual relations during outbreaks can
affect personal relationships. If you or your partner has genital herpes,
you can learn to cope with and treat the disease effectively by getting
proper counseling and medicine, and by using preventive measures as
mentioned above. Your local or state health department may be able to
offer you counseling. In addition, if you have questions and concerns, you
can call the American Social Health Association and the Health Advice
National Herpes Hotline - 919/361-8488
9 a.m. to 7 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday
Health Advice Company - 888/ADVICE-8 (888/238-4238)
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday
Herpes Resource Center
American Social Health Association
P.O. Box 13827
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-9940
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