Meningitis - Meningococcal Disease

Frequently Asked Questions

What is meningitis?

Meningitis is an infection of the fluid of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. People sometimes refer to it as spinal meningitis. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ. Viral meningitis is generally less severe and resolves without specific treatment, while bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disability. For bacterial meningitis, it is also important to know which type of bacteria is causing the meningitis because antibiotics can prevent some types from spreading and infecting other people. Before the 1990s, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, but new vaccines being given to all children as part of their routine immunizations have reduced the occurrence of invasive disease due to H. influenzae. Today, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the leading causes of bacterial meningitis.

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What are the signs and symptoms of meningitis?

High fever, headache, and stiff neck are common symptoms of meningitis in anyone over the age of 2 years. These symptoms can develop over several hours, or they may take 1 to 2 days. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, discomfort looking into bright lights, confusion, and sleepiness. In newborns and small infants, the classic symptoms of fever, headache, and neck stiffness may be absent or difficult to detect, and the infant may only appear slow or inactive, or be irritable, have vomiting, or be feeding poorly. As the disease progresses, patients of any age may have seizures.

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How is meningitis diagnosed?

Early diagnosis and treatment are very important. If symptoms occur, the patient should see a doctor immediately. The diagnosis is usually made by growing bacteria from a sample of spinal fluid. The spinal fluid is obtained by performing a spinal tap, in which a needle is inserted into an area in the lower back where fluid in the spinal canal is readily accessible. Identification of the type of bacteria responsible is important for selection of correct antibiotics.

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Can meningitis be treated?

Bacterial meningitis can be treated with a number of effective antibiotics. It is important, however, that treatment be started early in the course of the disease. Appropriate antibiotic treatment of most common types of bacterial meningitis should reduce the risk of dying from meningitis to below 15%, although the risk is higher among the elderly.

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Is meningitis contagious?

Yes, some forms of bacterial meningitis are contagious. The bacteria are spread through the exchange of respiratory and throat secretions (i.e., coughing, kissing). Fortunately, none of the bacteria that cause meningitis are as contagious as things like the common cold or the flu, and they are not spread by casual contact or by simply breathing the air where a person with meningitis has been.

However, sometimes the bacteria that cause meningitis have spread to other people who have had close or prolonged contact with a patient with meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis (also called meningococcal meningitis) or Hib. People in the same household or day-care center, or anyone with direct contact with a patient's oral secretions (such as a boyfriend or girlfriend) would be considered at increased risk of acquiring the infection. People who qualify as close contacts of a person with meningitis caused by N. meningitidis should receive antibiotics to prevent them from getting the disease. Antibiotics for contacts of a person with Hib meningitis disease are no longer recommended if all contacts 4 years of age or younger are fully vaccinated against Hib disease (see below).

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Are there vaccines against meningitis?

Yes, there are vaccines against Hib, against some serogroups of N. meningitidis and many types of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The vaccines against Hib are very safe and highly effective.

There are two vaccines against N. meningitidis available in the U.S. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4 or Menomune®) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and available since 1981. Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4 or Menactra™) was licensed in 2005. Both vaccines can prevent 4 types of meningococcal disease, including 2 of the 3 types most common in the U.S. (serogroup C, Y, and W-135) and a type that causes epidemics in Africa (serogroup A) . Meningococcal vaccines cannot prevent all types of the disease. But they do protect many people who might become sick if they didn't get the vaccine. Meningitis cases should be reported to state or local health departments to assure follow-up of close contacts and recognize outbreaks.

MCV4 is recommended for all children at their routine preadolescent visit (11 to 12 years of age) . For those who have never gotten MCV4 previously, a dose is recommended at high school entry. Other adolescents who want to decrease their risk of meningococcal disease can also get the vaccine. Other people at increased risk for whom routine vaccination is recommended are college freshmen living in dormitories, microbiologists who are routinely exposed to meningococcal bacteria, U.S. military recruits, anyone who has a damaged spleen or whose spleen has been removed; anyone who has terminal complement component deficiency (an immune system disorder), anyone who is traveling to the countries which have an outbreak of meningococcal disease, and those who might have been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak. MCV4 is the preferred vaccine for people 11 to 55 years of age in these risk groups, but MPSV4 can be used if MCV4 is not available. MPSV4 should be used for children 2 to 10 years old, and adults over 55, who are at risk.

Although large epidemics of meningococcal meningitis do not occur in the United States , some countries experience large, periodic epidemics. Overseas travelers should check to see if meningococcal vaccine is recommended for their destination. Travelers should receive the vaccine at least 1 week before departure, if possible. Information on areas for which meningococcal vaccine is recommended can be obtained by calling the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at (404) -332-4565.

There are vaccines to prevent meningitis due to S. pneumoniae (also called pneumococcal meningitis) which can also prevent other forms of infection due to S. pneumoniae . The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for all persons over 65 years of age and younger persons at least 2 years old with certain chronic medical problems. There is a newly licensed vaccine (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) that appears to be effective in infants for the prevention of pneumococcal infections and is routinely recommended for all children greater than 2 years of age.

Treatment Options

Prevention

To help prevent meningitis, children should be vaccinated against H. influenzae and mumps; the elderly and those who are debilitated should receive a pneumococcal vaccine. A meningococcal vaccine is administered to control epidemics or for travel to areas where meningococcal disease is widespread. Those who live with a person who has meningococcal infection should take the drug rifampin to prevent spread of the disease.

  • Avoid contact with the nasal or oral secretions of others
  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Get lots of sleep, exercise and good nutrition which will boost your immune system.
  • If you drink alcohol, do so responsibly and in moderation. Excessive alcohol consumption is believed by some health authorities to increase susceptibility to meningococcal meningitis.
  • Do not smoke.

Drug Therapies

The length of treatment varies with the organism being treated, ranging from one to three weeks. If bacterial meningitis is suspected, antibiotics must be started immediately, even before results from the lumbar puncture, blood tests, and imaging studies have been completed or returned. The following categories of medications will be used or considered in the case of bacterial meningitis:

  • Antibiotics, often in combination, including ampicillin, cephalosporins, gentamicin, vancomycin, and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
  • Corticosteriods to reduce neurologic complications
  • Diazepam and/or phenytoin if seizures occur 
  • Rifampin is given to household contacts of those with meningococcal meningitis to reduce their risk of contracting the disease.
  • There is no specific antiviral therapy for infection with enteroviruses, arboviruses, mumps virus, or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 may be treated with acyclovir, but it is not clear that this changes the course of the illness.
  • HIV meningitis may be treated with antiretroviral drugs.
  • Intravenous gamma globulin to boost immunity may be used for those with meningitis caused by an enterovirus.

Surgical and Other Procedures

Surgery may be needed to close an abnormal opening that allows cerebrospinal fluid to leak outside its usual area; such a leak could allow bacteria or viruses to enter the brain or spinal cord.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

Bacterial meningitis has severe consequences if not recognized and treated aggressively with antibiotics and other standard medical approaches as described. Nutritional and herbal therapies should be used only in support of conventional treatment, not in place of it, and only with the guidance of a health professional. Some studies suggest herbs may fight microbes and regulate the immune system to assist in the treatment of certain kinds of meningitis. Homeopathic remedies may help relieve symptoms that accompany meningitis.

Nutrition

Several nutrient deficiencies seem to possibly play a role in the development of certain types of meningitis. Much more research is needed, though, to determine if taking these nutrients in either dietary or supplement form will impact the course of the disease.

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Vitamin B12

One small-scale study suggested that people with meningitis from tuberculosis had decreased levels of vitamin B12. More research is needed to determine whether measures to increase vitamin B12 can help treat tuberculous meningitis.

Vitamin A

A study investigating meningococcal disease in sub-Saharan Africa found that vitamin A deficiency may play a role in this type of meningitis. Again, though, it is not known whether taking vitamin A supplements would be beneficial for this condition.

Herbs

Garlic

In laboratory tests, garlic (Allium sativum) has been shown to stop the growth of and even kill the fungus Cryptococcal neoformans. When combined with the antifungal medication amphotericin B, garlic seemed to augment the effects of the medicine against cryptococcus. A subsequent study of five patients with cryptococcol meningitis suggested that the antifungal effects of garlic may be conferred to people, although more extensive research is needed.

Echinacea

In animals with suppressed immune systems infected with L. monocytogenes, echinacea (Echinacea purpurea) improved immune function, significantly reduced the amount of bacteria, and increased survival rate. It is not known whether echinacea will help treat meningitis caused by L. monocytogenes in humans.

Homeopathy

Although very few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic therapies, professional homeopaths may consider the following remedies to help alleviate symptoms of meningitis in addition to standard medical care to treat this condition. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person's constitutional type. A constitutional type is defined as a person's physical, emotional, and psychological makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate remedy for each individual.

  • Apis Mellifica -- for meningitis in children with such intense head pain that they bore their heads into a pillow
  • Arnica Montana -- for meningitis following surgery or an injury to the head; this remedy is most appropriate for individuals who often insist that there is nothing wrong with them
  • Belladonna -- for a sudden onset of high fever which accompanies meningitis; this remedy is most appropriate for individuals who are hot and flushed with wide pupils, and may have nightmares and delusions
  • Bryonia -- for meningitis with impaired consciousness and a characteristic movement of the mouth in which the jaw moves side to side quite rapidly in a somewhat contorted manner
  • Helleborus -- for meningitis with impaired consciousness and stupor; individual may also be anguished and pleading for help; shaking or rolling of the head may also occur
  • Hyoscyamus -- for meningitis with violent spasms that occur with shrieking and grinding of the teeth

In the case of meningitis, these treatments must not be used without direction and supervision by an appropriately trained and certified homeopathic doctor.

 

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Disclaimer: This information is intended as a guide only.   This information is offered to you with the understanding that it not be interpreted as medical or professional advice.  All medical information needs to be carefully reviewed with your health care provider.

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